African-American History in Norfolk
From historic churches and theatres to gospel cruises and cultural events, there's no place like Norfolk to celebrate African-American heritage. In fact, African-Americans have played a key role in the development of this historic seaport since its establishment in the 1600s. Almost everywhere you turn, the richness of the African-American experience in Norfolk is alive and well just waiting for you to explore it through an exciting array of attractions, events, shopping, dining and exhibits.
Waterways to Freedom honors Norfolk’s proud participation in the Underground Railroad Network. In the early half of the 19th Century, tens of thousands of African American slaves escaped from the South to freedom in the northern United States and Canada. Their daring escapes were made possible by a clandestine network of people, hideouts, and willing ship captains that history would eventually call The Underground Railroad. Some speculate that enslaved African Americans departed Norfolk, Virginia more than any other port city along the eastern seaboard. With 1,500 ships visiting Norfolk’s waterfront each year, Virginia was the perfect gateway for slaves seeking freedom in the north. To view the interactive site with audio, click here.
The lovingly restored Attucks Theatre– which in its heyday was the focal point of entertainment, business, and racial pride in Norfolk’s African American community, is once again a star on Norfolk’s cultural stage. The theatre was financed, designed and constructed by African American entrepreneurs in 1919. The theatre was designed by Harvey Johnson, an African American architect and was named in honor of Crispus Attucks, an African American who was the first patriot to lose his life in the Revolutionary War. In 2019, Attucks Theatre will be celebrating its 100th anniversary with a line-up of special events and performances.
Norfolk is also the home to the West Point Monument at West Point Cemetery within Elmwood Cemetery. The memorial is a tribute to African-American Union veterans of the Civil War and the Spanish-American War. The soldier depicted on the monument is Norfolk native Sgt. William H. Carney of the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Regiment. Carney was the first black soldier to receive Medal of Honor for his bravery. Nearly 100 African American veterans are laid to rest in the West Point Cemetery.